Creativity and Innovation
Table of Contents
Part One: Social Issue-Social Inequality
Social inequality is a situation in which there is an uneven distribution of resources along defined patterns of the social aspects of life like economic class, gender, age, education status, social power, health status and racial lines (Babones, 2009, 13). Researchers find these problems interesting topics of discussion and they have formed propositions about the causes and effects of each of them. These problems are a barrier to personal advancement considering that they are along the social lines of life. Humans are social beings and therefore, there is a need for a clinical approach to the problems in their immediate context. Administrative units across the globe also consider these as dehumanizing and therefore have mechanisms in place to protect the citizens against them (Williams, 2005, 87). This paper discusses the effects of the problems and proposes the possible solutions in the social context. To make the issues more elaborate, some of the social problems are considered.
Causes of Social Inequality
Social units represent all lines of human life, across all continents and in all nations. It therefore follows that social inequality is a global problem resulting from the following causes:
- Social roles like leadership in administrative units (Taylor, 2004, 60). On tribal basis, assumption of power in chiefdoms and kingships present a line along which people are discriminated. Those who occupy these leadership positions occupy a higher social status in life as compared to those governed. Such examples are comparable to the African ancient social units as well as some European kingdoms like the UK, in which the Royal Family upholds higher esteem than the rest of the people.
- Some cultures create social differences among the people (Babones, 2009, 130). They present some privileges to a few individuals at the expense of others. For example, some cultures treat men with higher respect than women. In such contexts, men are more powerful than women are and therefore have more opportunities for self-advancement than women have. Another cultural practice that creates discrimination is the religious affiliation of individuals. Some religions do not value women, men and children as being the same. Some treat men as being superior to women and children. In such communities, less consideration is put on the less privileged and they are therefore taught to be respectful to the more privileged. This causes the oppression of the weak and denial of a platform to express themselves, usually on selfish contempt of the men.
- Ascribed and achieved privileges. Ascribed characteristics are birth privileges, which we do little to change. They include sex, skin colour, age, physicality, race among other characteristics. These characteristics present lines of discrimination in life, and form perhaps the most complicated aspects of social discrimination. On the other hand, acquired characteristics appear through experience and may include merit status in academics and wealth (Williams, 2005, 101). People with higher education statuses and wealth are more powerful than the less educated and poor people.
- Social stratification, defined as the grouping of people into categories depending on the guidelines of merit. Some states and nations have clearly distinguished residential areas, marked by urban zoning and administrative units (Dorling, Wilkinson, and Pickett, 2011, 301). Such differences make the public to consider some people superior to others.
Whatever the cause of the problem, these social problems are a setback in attainment of personal and institutional goals. They cause some people, in this case, those of the low and despised class not to feel a part of the rest of the community. Each category of social discrimination presents different problems to solve. It is therefore imperative that individuals research into the most practical methods of problem solving. The effects of some of the categories of social discrimination call for robust methods of problem solving, which do not relate to each other.
Effects of Social Discrimination
As mentioned earlier, the whole world faces the problem of social discrimination. The effects range in magnitude from place to place, some of which this paper discusses as follows:
People discriminated against may feel stigmatized and lack the morale and personal urge to participate in community programs. They may feel as not being a part of the rest and therefore consider themselves out of all projects. The effects of such a move are an even deteriorated relationship between members of the community, a factor that hinders development (Taylor, 2004, 50).
Abuse at work places
Due to social criteria, some people are discriminated by employers and managers at their places of work. Some may not get promotions despite their hard work; others may never get pay rises even if they worked consistently (Dorling, Wilkinson and Pickett, 2011, 90). There are chances that some employees are not involved in implementation of development project on basis of their social rank. These are de-moralising events and on an overall scale, they cause developmental setbacks.
Deny opportunities for personal advancement
Discrimination may deny the less privileged a chance to develop their talents and gifting (Babones, 2009, 100). Some may not have chances to join schools on basis of poor health statuses, race and other factors. In the past centuries, such cases were common in African colonial states where the Blacks did not attend the same schools as the Whites. This denied Africans chances to develop themselves academically.
Segregation of the community
When people discriminate against each other along the social lines, they create hatred for one another (Taylor, 2004, 200). They therefore divide the world into sections that do not coordinate to work for success. The world is one community and love for humanity is the most basic unifying factor for all people. We are required to work together to make the world a better place for the future generations. Discrimination makes the world unfriendly and hostile for the less privileged, putting them away from all opportunities (Surgevil and Evrim, 2011, 9)
Developing the world depends on the levels of unity of the people. There is a challenge when people discriminate against each other because they will not unite to work for success. It leaves the undeveloped regions of the world in a poorer state over time (Williams, 2005, 19).
Dealing with Social Discrimination
As this analysis suggests, social discrimination negatively affects human development and needs a check. In trying to solve the problem, the following methods are useful:
Public awareness and affirmative action
Considering that the problem of social discrimination is global, there is a need that as many people as possible are educated on the existence and effects of discrimination (Taylor, 2004, 200). This is specifically relevant in creating a long-lasting impact on the population. It can be through the media, having a wide coverage and ability to reach the audience in local languages. This is critical because it will teach the marginalised on their opportunities to advance in the same social context.
Development of education system
Education is the best tool to change the ideologies of the world and shift power regimes from one geographical section to another. By incorporating, the topic of social discrimination in in to the curriculums, countries and the world at large will attain the anti-discrimination goal (Dorling, Wilkinson, and Pickett, 2011, 91). Students will have orientation on the importance of equality among all people and carry the same to the social scene, helping to transform the world.
Equitable resource allocation
According to Williams (2005, 100), to control discrimination along the economic perspective, there is a need for all governments to ensure equitable distribution of resources. This will ensure that there is an equal chance for all people to advance and develop themselves. It will also help to reduce the gap between the rich and the poor, reducing further, the effects of economic discrimination.
Legislation and advocacy for equality and social justice
The rule of law is supposed to be fair and just to all citizens of any nation (Petersen and Krings, 2009, 10). The constitutions of almost all nations contain chapters that guard against infringement of the rights and privileges of citizens. In cases of discrimination, there is a need for appropriate legislative measures to apply in accordance with the constitution. Those found guilty of socially discriminating against others should face the law and act as examples to the rest (Dorling, Wilkinson, and Pickett, 2011, 44). It is hence the immediate tool of solving such problems.
Personal Opinion on Solving Social Discrimination Issues
In my opinion, cases of social discrimination need reporting to the authorities for proper interpretation of the law on the topic. This will ensure justice for the victims and at the same time, teach those involved a lesson that will change the world. Considering the magnitude of the case, it is also possible for mediation between the conflicting parties, only if it is applicable.
Social discrimination is a global problem, which needs a solution. There are cases globally of racial, religious, age, economic, health, gender and political discrimination. Such problems divide the world and prevent development from taking course apart from causing the affected persons affliction (Kavathatzopoulos, 2010, 6). In trying to solve, there is a need that the rule of law intervenes in the immediate context and educative programs on the dangers of the vice be a part of curriculums for schools. This, together with public awareness creates long-lasting impact on the population against social discrimination. For the world to be an enjoyable home for all races of the world, social discrimination needs elimination.
Part 2: The Most Creative Company
Creativity is the power to go beyond the traditional ideas, rules, systems, relations or other aspects and bring to existence better ideas, forms and methods of approaching things (Inauen and Schenker-Wicki, 2012, 4). This definition puts us in to the perspective of a creative company. Relating to this, there is a need to analyse the creative aspects of companies. A creative company is one that keeps innovating methods that add value to the customers and maintain productivity (O'grady, 2009, 60). Other aspects that determine the levels of creativity within a company are the structural plans and managerial structure. It therefore follows that creativity is in terms of creation of a worker friendly environment, having in place a good managerial plan, researching into production of better products, caring for the environment among other aspects.
Studies indicate that the most creative company in the world is Apple Inc. A look at the available data on the company reveals that the company runs one of the biggest markets in the electronic devices it produces as well as owning one of the most current technologies.
About Apple Inc.
Founded in 1976 by Ronald Wayne, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak Apple is a multinational company that designs and sells consumer electronics. It also sells computer software and offers online services for consumers. Apple has headquarters in Cupertino, California, USA and owns a range of product brands like Mac, iPod, iPhone and iPad. It runs online services like iCloud, iTunes and App Store. It also sells computer software with brand names of OS X and iOS. Pundits argue out that the company’s products are a revolution to the consumers.
Creative Aspects of Apple Inc.
Launching of New Products
For the fourth consecutive year, Apple Inc. ranks as the world’s most innovative company, beating Google and Samsung. From a financial point of view, the company has seen a growth in revenues because of continued innovation into producing what customers want (O'grady, 2009, 65). They have launched products into the market that have marketed them leading to a rise in the revenues by a massive 450 % in 8 years and a rise in the profits by 1700 % over a period of 10 years. This was a result of launching of newer products into the market like iPad and iPhone together with expansion of the market by launching of online sales. These revenues put the company second on the list of electronics companies after Samsung in terms of revenue.
By considering the level of customer satisfaction, the company builds products that are classic and simple to use and provides customers a chance to have a new experience (Ireland, Hoskisson and Hitt, 2008, 93). Each product launched by the company meets a level of customer experience. For instance, the launch of the iPod remains one of the most powerful innovations. The product allowed users to play music and keep a classic look for the first time. When the iPod technology was obsolete, the company moved to launch the iPhone, a smartphone that combined many aspects of previous productions into one. The company also provides a range of products for buyers to choose (O'grady, 2009, 100). Stocking a variety of goods and services for customers is an innovative way of making customers to keep preferring a business against competitors.
Management at Apple is a different approach from most other companies. The company operates on the legacy of its founders (Ireland, Hoskisson and Hitt, 2008, 103). According to sources, the Steve Jobs, who ran the company up to 2011, was young and inexperienced at the beginning. He used this chance to pester his employees naively, but the results he acquired were tremendous. He created busy working environment pushing employees into working at producing the best products. He had a legacy that customers did not know what they wanted until the company gave it to them. Unlike Google Inc. where every worker tries to find a solution to the innovativeness of the company, Apple focuses on leadership. The management is in charge of spearheading all the innovations and the employees need to work hard at making the dreams alive (Datta, Reed and Jessup, 2013, 16). It should not create an impression that working at apple is a difficult experience, but a tough one, because of the levels of commitment. It is helpful because the company achieves in accordance with the visions of the founders.
Apple’s products are not environmental hazards. Unlike other companies, whose products and effluents degrade the environment, Apple ventures in producing energy efficient products. To criticize the company’s environmental initiatives is baseless. The company is a leader in innovation and its products are environmentally friendly.
Proper Marketing Strategies
In terms of marketing strategies, the company does not engage in researching into the market like other companies. It engages in studying the technological advancements of the world and capitalises on that to create products that satisfy the needs of consumers (Ireland, Hoskisson and Hitt, 2008, 115). A combination of these factors makes the company attain continuous growth in terms of the market share. There are chances that the company keeps growing to even higher levels due to the levels of managerial commitment.
The last aspect of innovation from Apple is the branding strategy, which has evolved over time to become one of the most appealing in the modern corporate world. A look at the brand names shows a continued improvement, which signifies the levels of commitment to innovate and launch new products. According to Fortune magazine, Apple is the world’s most valuable business brand.
For a business to grow and edge out competition, it is critical that it maintains a level of innovativeness and creativity. Apple Inc. is dynamic in terms of customer experience because it offers a wide range of products for customers to choose. Better parts of the achievements of the company come with its branding and innovative initiatives. The management at the company is exemplary at ensuring that the desired standards of customer satisfaction are a part of the vision of the company. Goal orientation is a managerial role and is an integral part of the success that apple enjoys. Today, sources indicate that Apple is the world’s most innovative business unit and the world’s most valuable business brand.
Taylor, P. (2004). Social inequality in Vietnam and the challenges to reform. Singapore, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
Williams, C. (2005). Inside Toyland Working Shopping and Social Inequality. Berkerley, University of California Press. http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=922885.
Dorling, D., Wilkinson, R. G., & Pickett, K. (2011). Injustice: why social inequality persists. Bristol, Policy.
Babones, S. J. (2009). Social inequality and public health. Bristol, UK, Policy Press.
Petersen, L. & Krings, F. 2009, "Are Ethical Codes of Conduct Toothless Tigers for Dealing with Employment Discrimination?", Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 501-514.
Surgevil, O. & Evrim, M.A. 2011, "Discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS in the workplace: Turkey context",Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 463-481.
Kavathatzopoulos, I. 1994, "Training professional managers in decision-making about real life business ethics problems: The acquisition of the autonomous problem-solving skill", Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 379.
Ireland, R. D., Hoskisson, R. E., & Hitt, M. A. (2008). Understanding business strategy: concepts and cases. Mason, OH., South-Western Cengage Learning.
O'Grady, J. D. (2009). Apple Inc. Westport, Conn, Greenwood Press. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10323700.
Nejad, M.G. 2013, "Optimal pricing for the growth of innovations with direct network externalities: an agent-based approach", The Journal of Product and Brand Management, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 180-190.
Inauen, M. & Schenker-Wicki, A. 2012, "Fostering radical innovations with open innovation", European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 212-231.
Datta, A., Reed, R. & Jessup, L. 2013, "Commercialization of innovations: an overarching framework and research agenda",American Journal of Business, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 147-191.
Shun, Y.L., Shankar, V., Erramilli, M.K. & Murthy, B. 2004, "Customer Value, Satisfaction, Loyalty, and Switching Costs: An Illustration From a Business-to-Business Service Context", Academy of Marketing Science.Journal, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 293-311.
Kuo, M.C., Chang, Y. & Chang, W.C. 2014, "Perceived Organizational Support as a Mediator of Managerial Coaching Skills and Occupational Commitment", Public Administration Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 17-32.