Subject: Business and Management
Topic: Creativity and Innovation
Language: English (U.K.)
Pages: 11
Instructions
The first assignment is an essay. It forms the basis for some of the future assessments, but don’t panic if it goes awry; the idea is that they aren’t so related that a poor mark in one will mean a poor mark in the later assessments. We try our best to ‘spread’ assessments throughout the year and this one is the first; due shortly before the Christmas break. What we’ve covered thus far is, in the main, the subject of creativity, so the assessment is on this. It gives you the chance to put into practice some of the techniques we’ve studied, and ‘show off’ your research and argumentative skills. Please note that the portal will automatically mark your work as late if you submit after 12pm midday per the TurnItIn UK server time, and you will be capped at 40%; accordingly, you are advised to attempt submission well in advance of the deadline (ideally, 24 hours beforehand) so that any issues can be resolved in a timely manner, and well before the deadline. You can only upload one document, so you need to format your work into one file. The TurnItIn UK portal has a built-in originality/plagiarism checker; you will be able to see your essay’s originality ‘score’ 1 Please note that this is an absolute maximum; there is no 10% +/- allowance and a deduction to your mark will be made if you exceed this word count. You are required to state your word count at the end of your submission (before the reference list and appendices (if present)). Word counts include everything excluding cover and contents pages, reference lists and anything in the appendices. 2 Appendices: It is expected that you will use an appendix where appropriate. Any appendix should follow your list of references. In text, refer to an appendicised item as such (e.g. “This document can be found in Appendix 1”; or, where the reference isn’t a part of the natural flow of prose, “My journal illustrates this point well (Appendix 2: 34)”). Personal communications: See BSU’s guide to Harvard reference (paragraph 2.9) for guidance (available at http://bathspa.ac.uk/services/library/using-the-library/how-cite-referencess-harvard-04-2007.pdf). Intext figures (i.e. pictures, graphs, diagrams) and tables should be referenced appropriately too (by adding “Figure 1” or “Table 1”, as appropriate, to the figure/table and referring to this as such in-text (like for the appendices)). Page 17 of 28 on submission, and can amend and resubmit your work if you see fit. Once the deadline has passed, you will not be able to resubmit your work. Assessment brief You are required to write an essay of no more than 2,500 words. Your essay must address the following two main parts: 1. Firstly, (a) identify a ‘social problem’ that interests you; then (b) apply a problemsolving technique to ‘solve’ it in an original fashion; and, finally, (c) outline your solution. Spend about 1,500 words on this section; 2. Secondly, try to identify an organisation that you think is creative. Outline who the organisation is and what it does, before detailing why you think the organisation is creative. Use examples to make your arguments persuasive and cogent. Spend about 1,000 words on this section. Please also observe the following formatting requirements: a. Format your essay appropriately, with an introduction, a ‘middle bit’ and a conclusion. Include other niceties like a cover page, contents page, appendices (if required), etc. b. Reference correctly (in accordance with the Harvard convention) and critically engage with the resources you employ; c. Your introduction should provide brief ‘signposts’ as to what is coming up in the essay; linking these to your headings is sensible; d. Include page numbers, and utilise headings and sub-headings to aid reader navigation of your work; e. Do not type your name on your work – student numbers only, please; f. Keep your styling ‘clean’ and professional – presentation is marked; g. Similarly, marks are awarded for good English and grammar. This means that it is important that you: ! Write in full, proper sentences, without employing comma-splices or run-on sentences; ! Ensure that your text is properly split into paragraphs; ! Advance full arguments – that is, conclusions supported by reasons; Page 18 of 28 Guidance This guidance is numbered to correspond with the list of requirements, above. 1. Clearly the first step here in planning your work is to identify a social issue that interests you. There are literally hundreds – thousands, perhaps – to choose from; indeed, Wikipedia has a fair few to choose from on its ‘Social issue’ page. In preparing your essay, you need to outline what the problem is, remembering to reference, reference, reference, throughout your work. As you ought not reference Wikipedia, so find something else, even if this was the start of your ‘research trail’. One small word of warning, here: Not all social issues are equal (in many respects but, here, in how easy they are to ‘solve’). Also, not all issues can be resolved using the techniques we have covered, so you have to be strategic in your choice and perhaps ‘try out’ a few issue/technique combinations to see which work best. In attempting to ‘solve’ the problem you should try to apply a known problemsolving technique, and perhaps even an overarching problem-solving strategy. Detail what that technique is and how it works before applying it. The application is the tricky part and, perhaps naturally then, is the more mark-worthy; everything else thus far has been fairly descriptive. Critically evaluating your technique and comparing it to others with a view to arguing for use of your technique in these circumstances garners the highest marks. Obviously you need to present your conclusion – the solution that you have identified. Remember that whilst, for our purposes, the creativity is about producing something that is useful, it doesn’t necessarily have to be economically practical, say; what’s being assessed here is your ability to apply a recognised problem-solving technique (or, perhaps, multiple technqiues) to an identified problem. It does, however, have to be an original solution! 2. The second part of the essay is distinct from the first so you can prepare for this quite separately, before part 1, if you so wish. Similarly to part 1 of the assessment, the first aspect here is quite descriptive; you must simply identify an organisation and provide some contextual details about it (who they are, what they do, etc.). The next part – why you are arguing that they are creative – is the more involved requirement; you must advance (a) clear argument(s), backed up with examples, to make sure you score well. It seems likely that to inform your points you’ll need to provide (a) definition(s) of creativity; critically considering those found during your research and choosing one/a few for your purposes. Remember that an organisation isn’t creative only because of its products and/or services, it may be because of its organisational structure, organisational culture, approach to research and development, workforce skills, demographic factors, market sector, technology, levels of competition, leadership, etc. etc.! Page 19 of 28 It is highly likely that the single biggest issue here will exist in the clarity and cogency of students’ explanations of why a given organisation is creative. Take care and time in getting this part right. As ever, reference thoroughly.

Creativity and Innovation


Name

Institution

Date


Table of Contents

Part One: Social Issue-Social Inequality. 3

Introduction. 3

Causes of Social Inequality. 3

Effects of Social Discrimination. 5

Stigmatization. 5

Abuse at work places. 5

Deny opportunities for personal advancement 6

Segregation of the community. 6

Underdevelopment 6

Dealing with Social Discrimination. 6

Public awareness and affirmative action. 7

Development of education system.. 7

Equitable resource allocation. 7

Legislation and advocacy for equality and social justice. 8

Personal Opinion on Solving Social Discrimination Issues. 8

Conclusion. 8

Part 2: The Most Creative Company. 9

Introduction. 9

About Apple Inc. 9

Creative Aspects of Apple Inc. 10

Launching of New Products. 10

Customer Satisfaction. 10

Managerial Commitment 11

Environmental Consciousness. 11

Proper Marketing Strategies. 12

Conclusion. 12

Bibliography. 13

 


Part One: Social Issue-Social Inequality

Introduction

           Social inequality is a situation in which there is an uneven distribution of resources along defined patterns of the social aspects of life like economic class, gender, age, education status, social power, health status and racial lines (Babones, 2009, 13). Researchers find these problems interesting topics of discussion and they have formed propositions about the causes and effects of each of them. These problems are a barrier to personal advancement considering that they are along the social lines of life. Humans are social beings and therefore, there is a need for a clinical approach to the problems in their immediate context. Administrative units across the globe also consider these as dehumanizing and therefore have mechanisms in place to protect the citizens against them (Williams, 2005, 87). This paper discusses the effects of the problems and proposes the possible solutions in the social context. To make the issues more elaborate, some of the social problems are considered.

Causes of Social Inequality

           Social units represent all lines of human life, across all continents and in all nations. It therefore follows that social inequality is a global problem resulting from the following causes:

  1. Social roles like leadership in administrative units (Taylor, 2004, 60).  On tribal basis, assumption of power in chiefdoms and kingships present a line along which people are discriminated. Those who occupy these leadership positions occupy a higher social status in life as compared to those governed. Such examples are comparable to the African ancient social units as well as some European kingdoms like the UK, in which the Royal Family upholds higher esteem than the rest of the people.
  2. Some cultures create social differences among the people (Babones, 2009, 130). They present some privileges to a few individuals at the expense of others. For example, some cultures treat men with higher respect than women. In such contexts, men are more powerful than women are and therefore have more opportunities for self-advancement than women have. Another cultural practice that creates discrimination is the religious affiliation of individuals. Some religions do not value women, men and children as being the same. Some treat men as being superior to women and children. In such communities, less consideration is put on the less privileged and they are therefore taught to be respectful to the more privileged. This causes the oppression of the weak and denial of a platform to express themselves, usually on selfish contempt of the men.
  3. Ascribed and achieved privileges. Ascribed characteristics are birth privileges, which we do little to change. They include sex, skin colour, age, physicality, race among other characteristics. These characteristics present lines of discrimination in life, and form perhaps the most complicated aspects of social discrimination. On the other hand, acquired characteristics appear through experience and may include merit status in academics and wealth (Williams, 2005, 101). People with higher education statuses and wealth are more powerful than the less educated and poor people.
  4. Social stratification, defined as the grouping of people into categories depending on the guidelines of merit. Some states and nations have clearly distinguished residential areas, marked by urban zoning and administrative units (Dorling, Wilkinson, and Pickett, 2011, 301).  Such differences make the public to consider some people superior to others.

 

Whatever the cause of the problem, these social problems are a setback in attainment of personal and institutional goals. They cause some people, in this case, those of the low and despised class not to feel a part of the rest of the community. Each category of social discrimination presents different problems to solve. It is therefore imperative that individuals research into the most practical methods of problem solving. The effects of some of the categories of social discrimination call for robust methods of problem solving, which do not relate to each other.

Effects of Social Discrimination

           As mentioned earlier, the whole world faces the problem of social discrimination. The effects range in magnitude from place to place, some of which this paper discusses as follows:

Stigmatization

           People discriminated against may feel stigmatized and lack the morale and personal urge to participate in community programs. They may feel as not being a part of the rest and therefore consider themselves out of all projects. The effects of such a move are an even deteriorated relationship between members of the community, a factor that hinders development (Taylor, 2004, 50).

Abuse at work places

           Due to social criteria, some people are discriminated by employers and managers at their places of work. Some may not get promotions despite their hard work; others may never get pay rises even if they worked consistently (Dorling, Wilkinson and Pickett, 2011, 90). There are chances that some employees are not involved in implementation of development project on basis of their social rank. These are de-moralising events and on an overall scale, they cause developmental setbacks.

Deny opportunities for personal advancement

           Discrimination may deny the less privileged a chance to develop their talents and gifting (Babones, 2009, 100). Some may not have chances to join schools on basis of poor health statuses, race and other factors. In the past centuries, such cases were common in African colonial states where the Blacks did not attend the same schools as the Whites. This denied Africans chances to develop themselves academically.

Segregation of the community

           When people discriminate against each other along the social lines, they create hatred for one another (Taylor, 2004, 200). They therefore divide the world into sections that do not coordinate to work for success. The world is one community and love for humanity is the most basic unifying factor for all people. We are required to work together to make the world a better place for the future generations. Discrimination makes the world unfriendly and hostile for the less privileged, putting them away from all opportunities (Surgevil and Evrim, 2011, 9)

Underdevelopment

           Developing the world depends on the levels of unity of the people. There is a challenge when people discriminate against each other because they will not unite to work for success. It leaves the undeveloped regions of the world in a poorer state over time (Williams, 2005, 19).

Dealing with Social Discrimination

           As this analysis suggests, social discrimination negatively affects human development and needs a check. In trying to solve the problem, the following methods are useful:

Public awareness and affirmative action

           Considering that the problem of social discrimination is global, there is a need that as many people as possible are educated on the existence and effects of discrimination (Taylor, 2004, 200). This is specifically relevant in creating a long-lasting impact on the population. It can be through the media, having a wide coverage and ability to reach the audience in local languages. This is critical because it will teach the marginalised on their opportunities to advance in the same social context.

Development of education system

           Education is the best tool to change the ideologies of the world and shift power regimes from one geographical section to another. By incorporating, the topic of social discrimination in in to the curriculums, countries and the world at large will attain the anti-discrimination goal (Dorling, Wilkinson, and Pickett, 2011, 91). Students will have orientation on the importance of equality among all people and carry the same to the social scene, helping to transform the world.

Equitable resource allocation

            According to Williams (2005, 100), to control discrimination along the economic perspective, there is a need for all governments to ensure equitable distribution of resources. This will ensure that there is an equal chance for all people to advance and develop themselves. It will also help to reduce the gap between the rich and the poor, reducing further, the effects of economic discrimination.

Legislation and advocacy for equality and social justice

           The rule of law is supposed to be fair and just to all citizens of any nation (Petersen and Krings, 2009, 10). The constitutions of almost all nations contain chapters that guard against infringement of the rights and privileges of citizens. In cases of discrimination, there is a need for appropriate legislative measures to apply in accordance with the constitution. Those found guilty of socially discriminating against others should face the law and act as examples to the rest (Dorling, Wilkinson, and Pickett, 2011, 44). It is hence the immediate tool of solving such problems.

Personal Opinion on Solving Social Discrimination Issues

           In my opinion, cases of social discrimination need reporting to the authorities for proper interpretation of the law on the topic. This will ensure justice for the victims and at the same time, teach those involved a lesson that will change the world. Considering the magnitude of the case, it is also possible for mediation between the conflicting parties, only if it is applicable.

Conclusion

           Social discrimination is a global problem, which needs a solution. There are cases globally of racial, religious, age, economic, health, gender and political discrimination. Such problems divide the world and prevent development from taking course apart from causing the affected persons affliction (Kavathatzopoulos, 2010, 6). In trying to solve, there is a need that the rule of law intervenes in the immediate context and educative programs on the dangers of the vice be a part of curriculums for schools. This, together with public awareness creates long-lasting impact on the population against social discrimination. For the world to be an enjoyable home for all races of the world, social discrimination needs elimination.


Part 2: The Most Creative Company

Introduction

           Creativity is the power to go beyond the traditional ideas, rules, systems, relations or other aspects and bring to existence better ideas, forms and methods of approaching things (Inauen and Schenker-Wicki, 2012, 4). This definition puts us in to the perspective of a creative company. Relating to this, there is a need to analyse the creative aspects of companies. A creative company is one that keeps innovating methods that add value to the customers and maintain productivity (O'grady, 2009, 60). Other aspects that determine the levels of creativity within a company are the structural plans and managerial structure. It therefore follows that creativity is in terms of creation of a worker friendly environment, having in place a good managerial plan, researching into production of better products, caring for the environment among other aspects.

           Studies indicate that the most creative company in the world is Apple Inc. A look at the available data on the company reveals that the company runs one of the biggest markets in the electronic devices it produces as well as owning one of the most current technologies.

About Apple Inc.

           Founded in 1976 by Ronald Wayne, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak Apple is a multinational company that designs and sells consumer electronics. It also sells computer software and offers online services for consumers. Apple has headquarters in Cupertino, California, USA and owns a range of product brands like Mac, iPod, iPhone and iPad. It runs online services like iCloud, iTunes and App Store. It also sells computer software with brand names of OS X and iOS. Pundits argue out that the company’s products are a revolution to the consumers.

 

Creative Aspects of Apple Inc.

Launching of New Products

           For the fourth consecutive year, Apple Inc. ranks as the world’s most innovative company, beating Google and Samsung. From a financial point of view, the company has seen a growth in revenues because of continued innovation into producing what customers want (O'grady, 2009, 65). They have launched products into the market that have marketed them leading to a rise in the revenues by a massive 450 % in 8 years and a rise in the profits by 1700 % over a period of 10 years. This was a result of launching of newer products into the market like iPad and iPhone together with expansion of the market by launching of online sales. These revenues put the company second on the list of electronics companies after Samsung in terms of revenue.

Customer Satisfaction

           By considering the level of customer satisfaction, the company builds products that are classic and simple to use and provides customers a chance to have a new experience (Ireland, Hoskisson and Hitt, 2008, 93). Each product launched by the company meets a level of customer experience. For instance, the launch of the iPod remains one of the most powerful innovations. The product allowed users to play music and keep a classic look for the first time. When the iPod technology was obsolete, the company moved to launch the iPhone, a smartphone that combined many aspects of previous productions into one. The company also provides a range of products for buyers to choose (O'grady, 2009, 100). Stocking a variety of goods and services for customers is an innovative way of making customers to keep preferring a business against competitors.

Managerial Commitment

           Management at Apple is a different approach from most other companies. The company operates on the legacy of its founders (Ireland, Hoskisson and Hitt, 2008, 103). According to sources, the Steve Jobs, who ran the company up to 2011, was young and inexperienced at the beginning. He used this chance to pester his employees naively, but the results he acquired were tremendous. He created busy working environment pushing employees into working at producing the best products. He had a legacy that customers did not know what they wanted until the company gave it to them. Unlike Google Inc. where every worker tries to find a solution to the innovativeness of the company, Apple focuses on leadership. The management is in charge of spearheading all the innovations and the employees need to work hard at making the dreams alive (Datta, Reed and Jessup, 2013, 16). It should not create an impression that working at apple is a difficult experience, but a tough one, because of the levels of commitment. It is helpful because the company achieves in accordance with the visions of the founders.

Environmental Consciousness

           Apple’s products are not environmental hazards. Unlike other companies, whose products and effluents degrade the environment, Apple ventures in producing energy efficient products. To criticize the company’s environmental initiatives is baseless. The company is a leader in innovation and its products are environmentally friendly.

Proper Marketing Strategies

           In terms of marketing strategies, the company does not engage in researching into the market like other companies. It engages in studying the technological advancements of the world and capitalises on that to create products that satisfy the needs of consumers (Ireland, Hoskisson and Hitt, 2008, 115). A combination of these factors makes the company attain continuous growth in terms of the market share. There are chances that the company keeps growing to even higher levels due to the levels of managerial commitment.

           The last aspect of innovation from Apple is the branding strategy, which has evolved over time to become one of the most appealing in the modern corporate world.  A look at the brand names shows a continued improvement, which signifies the levels of commitment to innovate and launch new products. According to Fortune magazine, Apple is the world’s most valuable business brand.

Conclusion

           For a business to grow and edge out competition, it is critical that it maintains a level of innovativeness and creativity. Apple Inc. is dynamic in terms of customer experience because it offers a wide range of products for customers to choose. Better parts of the achievements of the company come with its branding and innovative initiatives. The management at the company is exemplary at ensuring that the desired standards of customer satisfaction are a part of the vision of the company. Goal orientation is a managerial role and is an integral part of the success that apple enjoys. Today, sources indicate that Apple is the world’s most innovative business unit and the world’s most valuable business brand.  

Bibliography

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Williams, C. (2005). Inside Toyland Working Shopping and Social Inequality. Berkerley, University of California Press. http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=922885.

Dorling, D., Wilkinson, R. G., & Pickett, K. (2011). Injustice: why social inequality persists. Bristol, Policy.

Babones, S. J. (2009). Social inequality and public health. Bristol, UK, Policy Press.

Petersen, L. & Krings, F. 2009, "Are Ethical Codes of Conduct Toothless Tigers for Dealing with Employment Discrimination?", Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 501-514.

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O'Grady, J. D. (2009). Apple Inc. Westport, Conn, Greenwood Press. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10323700.

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Datta, A., Reed, R. & Jessup, L. 2013, "Commercialization of innovations: an overarching framework and research agenda",American Journal of Business, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 147-191.

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